There are many causes for hyperpigmentation (dyschromias) and uneven skin tone, and there are different depths of damage to the skin. Types of pigment changes include:
- Hyperpigmentation – darkened pigment.
- Hypopigmentation – no melanin.
- Demarcation – uneven pigmentation from procedures, picking or scratching
- Melasma – more dense larger patches
These types of changes in the skin occur when melanocytes are either destroyed, resulting in hypopigmentation, or over-stimulated, resulting in hyperpigmentation.
When examining the skin, three types of hyperpigmentation will present itself:
- Epidermal – Surface is light brown and not quite as dense.
- Dermal – Skin is deep brown, ashen-gray and appears more solid.
- Mixture – Both levels are usually dark brown.